辞書

類語

英和・和英

which

参照:研究社

A (疑問代名詞) [一定数のもの・人の中からの選択に関して用いて] どちら,どれ,どの人 (cf. what A1):
 a [主語の場合] 《★【用法】 この場合,疑問文であっても主語と動詞の語順は平叙文と同じ》.
 b [補語の場合].
 c [目的語の場合].
 d [間接疑問の節や +to do の形で].
B /(h)wɪtʃ|wɪtʃ/ (関係代名詞)
1 [制限的用法で] …する[した](もの,事) 《★【用法】 (1) 通例「もの」を表わす名詞を先行詞とする形容詞節をつくる; (2) 制限的用法で主格・目的格の場合 which は that に書き換え可能》:
 a [主格の場合].
 b [所有格の場合; of which の形で].
 c [目的格の場合].
 d [+to do の形で] …すべき(もの).
 e [It is…which の強調構文で] …するのは 《★【比較】 It is…that… のほうが一般的; cf. it 7》.
2 [非制限的用法で; 通例前にコンマが置かれる]:
 a [主格・目的格の場合] そしてそれは[を]; しかしそれは[を] 《★形式ばった用法》.
 b [先行する句・節・文またはその内容を受けて] 《★【用法】 形式ばった用法; 時に独立して Which… と書かれることもある》.
 c [関係詞節が主節に先立って] 《文語》 …であるが.
3 [名詞節を導いて] (…するのは)どちらでも.

代名詞としての「which」のイディオムやフレーズ

thát which…
whích is whích

━/(h)wtʃ|wtʃ/
【限定用法の形容詞】
(比較なし)
A (疑問形容詞)
1 どちらの,どの,いずれの.
2 [間接疑問の節や +to do の形で].
B (関係形容詞)
1 《文語》 そして[だが]その 《★【発音】 この which は次にくる名詞よりも強く発音される》.
2 (…するのは)どちらの…でも.

古期英語から

音節which発音記号・読み方(h)wɪ́ʧ|wɪ́ʧ
コアどれ疑問詞として限定された数の対象について「どれ」「どの」と尋ねたり,関係詞としてある対象についてあとから情報を提供する際にその導入の役割を果たしたりするⅠ疑問代名詞代名詞
└どれ▷1
Ⅱ関係代名詞代名詞
├(…する)ところの▷2
└そして[しかし]それ▷3
Ⅰ疑問形容詞形容詞
└どの▷1
Ⅱ関係形容詞形容詞
└そしてその▷2
代名詞Ⅰ疑問代名詞
1どれ,どちら;どの人(特定の対象からの選択を表し,しばしばwhich of ...という形で用いられる.不特定の対象については,物にはwhat, 人にはwhoを用いる)
a((ふつう文頭))

 Which do you prefer, desktops or laptops?
デスクトップコンピュータとラップトップコンピュータとどちらがお好きですか
 Which is farther from the earth, Mercury or Venus?
水星と金星ではどちらが地球から遠いですか
 Which of these plans is feasible?
これらの計画のうちどれが実行可能ですか
 Which of the twins got married to her?
その双子のどちらが彼女と結婚したんですか

b((間接疑問文))

 I asked her which she chose as her favorite TV program.
私は彼女に好きなテレビ番組としてどちらを選んだのかを尋ねた

成句which to do
どちらを…すべきか

 The car dealer advised me which to choose.
自動車販売業者がどちらを選んだらよいか助言してくれた

Ⅱ関係代名詞
2((制限用法))(…する)ところの
a((主語))(省略不可)

 The auto show which was held here yesterday was very impressive.
昨日ここで開かれたモーターショーはとても印象的だった
 There were few songs which touched us.
私たちの心を打った歌はほとんどなかった
 I read a book last night which was really exciting.
私は,昨夜,とても興奮に満ちた本を読んだ(関係詞節が先行詞から切り離されてしまうことがある.last nightは文頭に置くことも可能だが,その場合には,「昨夜」ということが目立った情報として伝えられる)
 Some clue will crop up which will make it clear to her.
それを彼女にはっきりさせる何らかの手掛かりが出てくるだろう(関係詞節を文末に移動させることで文全体のバランスがよくなる)

b((動詞の目的語))(省略可)

 These are the poems my father recited to me when I was a young child.
これらは私が小さな子どもだったころ父が私に暗唱してくれた詩です
 He lost the fountain pen he liked very much.
彼はとても気に入っていた万年筆をなくしてしまった

c((前置詞の目的語))(省略したほうが口語的.ただし,前置詞の直後では省略不可)

 This is the restaurant we have been looking for.
これが私たちが探していたレストランです
 The house in which we lived ten years ago was very near to the station.
私たちが10年前に住んでいた家は駅にとても近かった(The house which we lived in ten years agoも可.ただし,laugh at, look atなどのように,動詞と前置詞の結びつきが強い場合には動詞と前置詞を切り離さない)

d((先行詞を含んで))(…する)どちらでも

 You may choose which you want.
欲しいのをどちらでも選んでいいよ

3((非制限的用法))そして[しかし]それ(whichの前にコンマ(,)を置き,省略不可)
a((主語))

 Sydney, which is a beautiful city in Australia, is my second home.
シドニーはオーストラリアにある美しい都市ですが,私の第二の故郷です

b((動詞の目的語))

 This microwave oven, which my father bought, is still in working order.
この電子レンジは私の父が買ってくれたものだが,いまだに調子がよい

c((前置詞の目的語))

 This old laser printer, for which I paid just a little money, is very useful to me.
この古いレーザープリンターは,ほんのわずかなお金しか払っていないが,私にはとても役立っている(which I paid just a little money forも可.ただし,come across, look up to, put up withなどのように,全体で一つのまとまった意味を表す動詞表現が用いられているときは,前置詞を分離して関係代名詞の前に置くことはできない)
 On the desk there were two comics, one of which was my son's.
机の上には漫画の本が2冊あったが,そのうちの1冊は私の息子のものだった(one以外にも,all, both, each, many, most, neither, none, part, some, a number, 最上級などと用いられる場合には,of whichの形となる)

d((先行の叙述全体を受けて))

 I broke his computer again, which made him angry.
私は彼のコンピュータをまた壊してしまって,彼を怒らせてしまった

((人の職業・性格を表す名詞を受けて))

 Everybody says that he is a competent businessman, which in fact he is not.
だれもが彼は有能なビジネスマンだと言うけど,実際にはそうでない(先行詞が人であっても,それが職業・性格を表し,関係代名詞が関係詞節の中で補語の役割を果たすとき,whichが用いられる)

形容詞Ⅰ疑問形容詞
1どの,どちらの

 Which T‐shirt do you prefer, this or that?
これとあれのどちらのTシャツが好きですか
 Which car do you like best?
どの車が一番好きですか
 Which dictionary is more useful to high school students?
どちらの辞書が高校生に役に立つでしょうか
 Which bus stop should I get off at to go to the library?
図書館に行くにはどのバス停で降りたらいいしょうか
 I didn't know which floppy disk to use.
どのフロッピーディスクを使ったらいいのかわからなかった

Ⅱ関係形容詞
2((非制限用法))((かたい))そしてその(前置詞の後で用いる)

 I may be late for the meeting, in which case I'll telephone.
会議に遅れるかもしれないけど,その場合には電話します

成句which is which
どれがどれやら,だれがだれやら

 The twins are so alike that I can't tell which is which.
その双子はあまりに似ているので,どちらがどちらか私には区別がつかない


語法制限的関係詞節の基本機能
制限的関係詞節の基本的な機能は,先行詞について,「どの…」「どの種類の…」「どのグループの…」を説明することである
the bicycle which John wantedジョンが欲しかった自転車(特定の自転車)
a computer which is reliable頼りになる(種類の)コンピュータ
制限的関係詞節は,先行詞について必要不可欠な情報を伝える
I want to buy a car which has a sun roof.私はサンルーフつきの車が買いたい
例えば,上の文で関係詞節(which has a sun roof)がないと,私がどんな車を買いたいのかがわからない.ここでは,「車にサンルーフがついていること」は「私が欲しい車」の必要条件となっている

語法非制限的関係詞節の基本機能
非制限的関係詞節は,先行詞について付加的な情報を伝える
John wants to drive my car, which has a sun roof.ジョンは私の車を運転したがっているが,その車はサンルーフつきだ
この文では,関係詞節(which has a sun roof)がなくても,ジョンが運転したがっているのはどの車かが伝わる.つまり,関係詞節は,先行詞について,補足的な(または,より詳しい)説明を付け加えているにすぎない


どちら(の), どちらか, 〜するところの, そしてこの, そしてその, そしてそれは
用例Which of the applicants has got the job?
印欧語根
kwo-関係代名詞・疑問代名詞の語幹を表す印欧語根。
k^wi-とも表記。
関係代名詞・疑問代名詞としての派生語はhow, what, when, where, which, who, whyなど。
他の派生語は、either, quality, quantityなど。


《英》(CAの)ウィッチ?((英国の大手消費者団体であるCAが消費者向けに刊行している定期機関誌の名称;⇒CA))

***** 共起表現
((疑問詞))
どれ, ((関係詞))
するもの
関連語
what

which

参照:Weblio

訳語 どれ
品詞 代名詞
訳語 どちらかを
訳語 どちらの;どちらが;あなたはどっち

which

参照:日外アソシエーツ

何れでも
誰;何ちら;誰々
何の;何れ

which

参照:Weblio

どれ
カテゴリ ビジネス用語
どの
カテゴリ ビジネス用語
Weblio専門用語対訳辞書はプログラムで機械的に意味や英語表現を生成しているため、不適切な項目が含まれていることもあります。
ご了承くださいませ。

which

参照:Weblio

何の, 何れ何れ, 何れ, 孰れ, 何れ

Weblio英和対訳辞書はプログラムで機械的に意味や英語表現を生成しているため、不適切な項目が含まれていることもあります。
ご了承くださいませ。

which

参照:Wiktionary

別の表記

 whiche (廃れた用法)
 wich (Jamaican English)

語源

From Middle English which, hwic, wilche, hwilch, whilk, hwilc, from 古期英語 hwilċ (“which”), from Proto-Germanic *hwilīkaz (“what kind”, literally “like what”), derived from *hwaz, equivalent to who +‎ like. Cognates include Scots whilk (“which”), West Frisian hokker (“which”), Dutch welk (“which”), Low German welk (“which”), German welcher (“which”), Danish hvilken (“which”), Swedish vilken (“which”), Norwegian hvilken (“which”), Icelandic hvílíkur (“which”).

発音

 enPR: wĭch, IPA(key): /wɪt͡ʃ/
 (without the wine–whine merger) enPR: hwĭch, IPA(key): /ʍɪt͡ʃ/
  韻: -ɪtʃ
 異形同音異義語: witch, wich, wych (in accents with the wine-whine merger)

限定詞

which
 (interrogative) What, of those mentioned or implied.

Which song made the charts?


 (relative) The one or ones that.

Show me which one is bigger.


They couldn't decide which song to play.


 (relative) The one or ones mentioned.
 1860, Alfred Henry Forrester, Fairy footsteps, or, Lessons from legends, with illustr., by Alfred Crowquill, page 166 (Google Books view):

After glaring upon the smoking philosopher, who took his misfortunes with such positive nonchalance, he growled out an oath in German, which language is particularly adapted for growling in; then, raising his hand, he dealt him a blow on his pipe, which sent it, like a rocket, into the midst of the players.

 2015 January 21, Texas Public Radio, “Voices From Death Row: A Prisoner Writes An Ode To ‘Living Dyingly’”, in Texas Public Radio:

Whitaker’s blog post, housed on a website called Minutes Before Six, goes on to make references to Albert Camus’ 1947 classic, The Plague, dips into a Camus-inspired existential ramble and returns to an attempt to convey the detail of Prieto’s being essentially “noble,” which fact, he admits, will be lost in translation to anyone unfamiliar with death row units.


 2015 May 2, Adarsh Matham, “Battle of the Smartphones”, in The New Indian Express:

All the phones come in plastic bodies that have been given a brushed-metal finish and carry 64-bit processors from Intel, which fact they proudly announce with an Intel Inside logo on the back.




He once owned a painting of the house, which painting would later be stolen.


For several seconds he sat in silence, during which time the tea and sandwiches arrived.


I'm thinking of getting a new car, in which case I'd get a red one.


代名詞

which
 (interrogative) What one or ones (of those mentioned または implied).
 2013 August 17, Schumpeter, “In praise of laziness”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8849:

Which of these banes of modern business life is worse remains open to debate. But what is clear is that office workers are on a treadmill of pointless activity. Managers allow meetings to drag on for hours. Workers generate e-mails because it requires little effort and no thought. An entire management industry exists to spin the treadmill ever faster.




Which is bigger?;  Which is which?


 (relative) Who; whom; what (of those mentioned または implied).

He walked by a door with a sign, which read: PRIVATE OFFICE.


We've met some problems which are very difficult to handle.


He had to leave, which was very difficult.


No art can be properly understood apart from the culture of which it is a part.


 1611, King James Version of the Bible, Luke 1:1

Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us...

 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 2, in The Celebrity:

Sunning himself on the board steps, I saw for the first time Mr. Farquhar Fenelon Cooke. […] A silver snaffle on a heavy leather watch guard which connected the pockets of his corduroy waistcoat, together with a huge gold stirrup in his Ascot tie, sufficiently proclaimed his tastes.


 1913, Mrs. [Marie] Belloc Lowndes, chapter II, in The Lodger, London: Methuen, OCLC 7780546; republished in Novels of Mystery: The Lodger; The Story of Ivy; What Really Happened, New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., 55 Fifth Avenue, [1933], OCLC 2666860, page 0091:





There was a neat hat-and-umbrella stand, and the stranger's weary feet fell soft on a good, serviceable dark-red drugget, which matched in colour the flock-paper on the walls.

 2013 May-June, Katrina G. Claw, “Rapid Evolution in Eggs and Sperm”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3:

Many genes with reproductive roles also have antibacterial and immune functions, which indicate that the threat of microbial attack on the sperm or egg may be a major influence on rapid evolution during reproduction.


 2013 July 20, “Welcome to the plastisphere”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:

Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so readily. Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene. Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are already familiar to experts in the field.


 (relative, archaic) Used of people (now generally who, whom または that).
 1526, William Tyndale, trans. Bible, Acts IX:

The men which acompanyed him on his waye stode amased, for they herde a voyce, butt sawe no man.

使用する際の注意点

 (米国用法 usage) Some authorities insist that relative which be used only in non-restrictive clauses. For restrictive clauses (e.g., The song that made the charts in 2004 is better than the later ones), they prefer that. But Fowler, who proposed the rule, himself acknowledged that it was "not the practice of most or of the best writers". Even E.B. White, a notorious "which-hunter", wrote this: "the premature expiration of a pig is, I soon discovered, a departure which the community marks solemnly on its calendar." In modern UK usage, The song which made the charts in 2004 is better than the later ones is generally accepted without question.
 As a relative pronoun, which must be used when the relative clause is non-restrictive or when it is the object of a preposition placed in front of the pronoun (e.g., "These are the things about which we shall talk", "There were many fish, the biggest of which...").
 When which (または the other relative pronouns who かつ that) is used as the subject of a relative clause, the verb agrees with the antecedent of the pronoun. Thus, "the thing which is...", "the things which are...", etc.

派生語

 whichever
 whichsoever

関連する語

 every which way
 every which where
 which is which

名詞

which (複数形 whiches)
 An occurrence of the word which.
 1959, William Van O'Connor, Modern prose, form and style (page 251)

The ofs and the whiches have thrown our prose into a hundred-years' sleep.

 1989, Donald Ervin Knuth, Tracy Larrabee, Paul M. Roberts, Mathematical writing (page 90)

Is it not true, TLL asked of Mary-Claire, that people invariably get their whiches and thats right when they speak?


which

参照:Wikipedia


Which? is a product-testing and campaigning charity with a magazine and website run by Which? Ltd (formerly known as the Consumers' Association, which is still the official name of the charity). Based in the United Kingdom, it engages in advocacy campaigns on various consumer protection issues and aims to promote informed consumer choice in the purchase of goods and services, by testing products, highlighting inferior products or services, and raising awareness of consumer rights. It maintains its independence by not accepting advertising or freebies; everything bought for testing is paid for at full price. Which? is funded entirely by its subscribers and has no shareholders. This justifies its tagline of "Independent expert advice you can trust".